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 Post subject: na's rust belt to spe
PostPosted: Thu Oct 25, 2018 10:19 am 

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NAIROBI, May 30 (Xinhua) -- The 14th United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) slated to take place from July 17-22 in Kenya will kick start the global sustainable agenda, a senior Kenyan official said Monday.


Kenyan Cabinet Secretary for foreign affairs Amina Mohamed told a media briefing in Nairobi that the conference will represent a starting point of translating all the global commitments that that have been made so far.


"The conference will provide a platform for shaping the world for the full benefit of all," Mohammed said. The conference will be the first UN ministerial conference of the post 2015 era.


Mohammed said that the conference will focus on bringing a new push for efforts to bring all global commitment into action.


The hosting of UN conference meeting follows the decision by the UNCTAD Trade and Development board on Nov. 17, 2015 to accept Kenya's offer to host the meeting.


The conference will be held under the theme of "From decision to actions; Moving towards inclusive and equitable global economic environment for trade and development."


The event will include the World Leaders Summit, the fifth World Investment Forum, Seventh Global Commodity Forum as well as the Civil Society Forum.


In 1976 Kenya hosted the fourth UNCTAD meeting which was aimed at addressing the economic marginalization of developing countries. "Unfortunately this problem still exists today," she said.


"As we return 40 years later for the 14 UNCTAD, Nairobi continues to shine as a beacon of hope for the UN's crucial role in promoting fairness and justice in the global economic system," Mohamed said.


SAN FRANCISCO coach satchel bag outlet , June 28 (Xinhua) -- Researchers with the University of California, Berkeley, have for the first time reconstructed the whisker map a mouse creates of its surroundings in order to navigate its world, catch insects and avoid cats.


Unlike cats and dogs, mice are able to move their whiskers to map out their surroundings coach luggage bags outlet clearance , much as humans use their fingers to build a 3D picture of a darkened room.


The sensory nerves at the base of each rodent whisker connect to well-defined structures in the cortex or outer layer of the brain, so-called barrel columns, because they're shaped like a barrel. Each of the mouse's 24 large facial whiskers has an associated barrel column that's activated when the whisker encounters an object. The entire barrel cortex is between 2.5 and 3 millimeters across.


With these columns thoroughly mapped over the past decades, neuroscientists try to discover how brain circuits process, store and use sensory information.


However coach luggage bags outlet , Hillel Adesnik, a UC Berkeley assistant professor of molecular and cell biology, was more interested in how the brain uses whisker information to construct a picture of the world around the head.


"Beyond the reach of the whiskers, rodents use vision as well as auditory and olfactory cues to explore the world, but because their near vision is very blurry coach hobo bags outlet clearance , close to the face rodents use touch," he was quoted as explaining in a news release. "With their whiskers they scan the world the way we would scan with our hand at night on the night table to look for our cellphone."


His question was: "How does an animal represent space in its cortex so it can localize and then identify an object so that it can execute an action, like picking up the phone, or, for rodents coach hobo bags outlet , identifying something it wants to eat?"


The answer lies in a layer of cells in the outermost thickness of the mouse's somatosensory cortex. While the barrel cells in the preceding cortical layer, layer 4, are patterned according to the whiskers, neurons in layers 2 and 3 receive input from several barrel cells at once and process this information. Layer 4 is about 400 microns deep, while layers 2 and 3 start at about 100 microns deep from the cortical surface. The outermost layer of the cortex coach business bags outlet clearance , layer 1, can range between 100 and 150 microns thick.


"The hypothesis was that layers 2 and 3, which are one step away from layer 4, are not just encoding whiskers; maybe they are encoding space, that is coach business bags outlet , the space the whiskers are currently scanning," Adesnik said. "You can think of it as the mouse's field of view as it's moving its whiskers. Maybe there is a map that represents that space, and not the whiskers."


In the study published in the current issue of the journal Neuron, using two-photon calcium imaging, which allows more precise localization of fluorescently tagged nerve cells deeper inside brain tissue coach accessories outlet clearance , Adesnik and his colleagues were able to map how the cells in layers 2 and 3 respond when the mice whisked their whiskers and encountered objects near their head.


His recordings of cell activation through a window in the skull revealed a smooth map of the physical space the mouse was exploring with its whiskers, not a map of specific whisker activity. And the map changes continually as the animal moves its head.


"We think that in layer 4, the neurons really care about whiskers, but not the scanned space," he said coach accessories outlet , "while in 2 and 3 they are integrating over whiskers, perhaps even performing a mathematical operation something like smoothing over multiple whiskers, that encodes the absolute horizontal location of the object in the reference frame of the animal's head."


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